The profunda brachii artery (deep brachial artery) is an artery of the upper arm.
It supplies the humeral shaft and the muscles of the posterior compartment of the arm.
The profunda brachii arises from the brachial artery at the level of the inferior border of the teres major.
It first passes posteriorly between the long and medial heads of the triceps. Accompanied by the radial nerve, the profunda brachii enters the posterior compartment of the arm through the triangular interval.
It curves around the humerus within the spiral groove, providing muscular branches to the triceps brachii muscle.
At the inferior border of the latissimus dorsi, the profunda brachii divides into two vessels (middle collateral artery and radial collateral artery which form an anastomotic network around the elbow.
The profunda brachii artery contributes to the blood supply of the following structures:
- Shoulder – deltoid
- Posterior arm – triceps brachii
- Proxima forearm – anconeus, brachialis, brachioradialis
- Intermuscular septum