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The Intrinsic Back Muscles

The muscles of the back can be divided into three groups – superficial, intermediate and intrinsic: Superficial – associated with movements of the shoulder. Intermediate – associated with movements of the thoracic cage. Deep – associated with movements of the vertebral column. The deep muscles develop embryologically in the back, and are thus described as […]

The Superficial Back Muscles

The muscles of the back can be divided into three groups – superficial, intermediate and deep: Superficial – associated with movements of the shoulder. Intermediate – associated with movements of the thoracic cage. Deep – associated with movements of the vertebral column. The deep muscles develop embryologically in the back, and are thus described as […]

The Intermediate Back Muscles

The muscles of the back can be divided into three groups – superficial, intermediate and intrinsic: Superficial – associated with movements of the shoulder. Intermediate – associated with movements of the thoracic cage. Deep – associated with movements of the vertebral column. The deep muscles develop embryologically in the back, and are thus described as […]

The Accessory Nerve (CN XI)

The accessory nerve is the eleventh paired cranial nerve. It has a purely somatic motor function, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. In this article, the anatomical course, motor functions and clinical relevance of the nerve will be examined. Anatomical Course Traditionally, the accessory nerve is divided into spinal and cranial parts. Spinal Component The […]

The Sternoclavicular Joint

The sternoclavicular joint is a synovial joint between the clavicle and the manubrium of the sternum. It is the only attachment of the upper limb to the axial skeleton. Despite its strength, it is a very mobile joint and can function more like a ball-and-socket type joint. In this article we will look at the […]

The Cervical Spine

The cervical spine is the most superior portion of the vertebral column, lying between the cranium and the thoracic vertebrae. It consists of seven distinct vertebrae, two of which are given unique names: The first cervical vertebrae (C1) is known as the atlas. The second cervical vertebrae (C2) is known as the axis.  In this article, […]

The Peritoneum

The peritoneum is a continuous membrane which lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs (abdominal viscera). It acts to support the viscera, and provides pathways for blood vessels and lymph to travel to and from the viscera. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the peritoneum – its structure, relationship […]

The Pericardium

If the heart is the fun, interesting inside bit of an orange, the pericardium could be compared to the peel around it. Like peel, it can seem vaguely unexciting – that is until you learn some of its very important (appeeling. ahem.) physiological functions 1. In scientific terms, the pericardium is a fibro-serous, fluid-filled sack that surrounds the muscular […]

Major Arteries of the Head and Neck

The head and neck receives the majority of its blood supply through the carotid and vertebral arteries. This article shall explore the anatomy of this arterial system – its anatomical course, branches, and clinical correlations. Carotid Arteries We shall start at the origin of the carotid arteries. The right common carotid artery arises from a bifurcation of […]

Joint Stability

The stability of joints is a topic of great clinical importance; it explains why some joints are more prone to dislocation and injury than others. It also underlies the clinical basis of treating joint injuries. In this article we shall look at the various factors that contribute towards joint stability. Shape, Size and Arrangement of […]

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