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Bones of the Upper Limb

The Scapula

The scapula is also known as the shoulder blade. It articulates with the humerus at the glenohumeral joint, and with the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint. In doing so, the...

Bones of the Upper Limb

The Humerus

The humerus is a long bone of the upper limb, which extends from the shoulder to the elbow. The proximal aspect of the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of...

Muscles of the Upper Limb

Muscles of the Upper Arm

The upper arm is located between the shoulder joint and elbow joint. It contains four muscles – three in the anterior compartment (biceps brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis), and one in the...

Muscles of the Back

The Superficial Back Muscles

The muscles of the back can be divided into three groups – superficial, intermediate and deep: Superficial – associated with movements of the shoulder. Intermediate – associated with movements of...

Nerves of the Upper Limb

The Musculocutaneous Nerve

...Functions The musculocutaneous nerve innervates the muscles in the anterior compartment of the arm: Biceps brachii Brachialis Coracobrachialis These muscles flex the upper arm at the shoulder and the elbow....

Bones of the Upper Limb

The Clavicle

...In thin individuals, it is visible under the skin. The clavicle has three main functions: Attaches the upper limb to the trunk as part of the ‘shoulder girdle’. Protects the...



...the upper limb at the shoulder. Blood supply: Suprascapular and circumflex scapular arteries By TeachMeSeries Ltd (2024) Fig 1 The rotator cuff muscles, which act to stabilise the shoulder joint....



The supraspinatus is an intrinsic muscle of the shoulder region. It is part of the rotator cuff muscle group. Attachments: Originates from the supraspinous fossa of the scapula and attaches...


Subscapular Artery

The subscapular artery is a branch of the axillary artery. It provides arterial supply to muscles and skin of the shoulder, thoracic wall and upper limb. Course The subscapular artery...


Teres Major

The teres major is an intrinsic muscle of the shoulder region. It forms the inferior border of the quadrangular space – the space that the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex...

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