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The Intrinsic Muscles of the Shoulder

The muscles of the shoulder are associated with movements of the upper limb. They produce the characteristic shape of the shoulder, and can be divided into two groups: Extrinsic – originate from the torso, and attach to the bones of the shoulder (clavicle, scapula or humerus). Intrinsic – originate from the scapula and/or clavicle, and attach […]

The Extrinsic Muscles of the Shoulder

The muscles of the shoulder are associated with movements of the upper limb. They produce the characteristic shape of the shoulder, and can be divided into two groups: Extrinsic – originate from the torso, and attach to the bones of the shoulder (clavicle, scapula or humerus). Intrinsic – originate from the scapula and/or clavicle, and attach […]

The Shoulder Joint

The shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) is a ball and socket joint between the scapula and the humerus. It is the major joint connecting the upper limb to the trunk. It is one of the most mobile joints in the human body, at the cost of joint stability. In this article, we shall look at the […]

Muscles of the Shoulder Region

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Classification of Joints

A joint is defined as a connection between two bones in the skeletal system. Joints can be classified by the type of the tissue present (fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial), or by the degree of movement permitted (synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis or diarthrosis). In this article, we shall look at the classification of joints in the human body. […]

Development of the Limbs

The upper and lower limbs (including the shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle) begin development in the 4th week of gestation. Usually the upper limb begins development first, with the lower limb often lagging 2-3 days behind. The limbs are well differentiated by week 8. In this article we shall cover the basic embryological development of the limbs, as well […]

Lymphatic Drainage of the Upper Limb

The lymphatic system functions to drain tissue fluid, plasma proteins and other cellular debris back into the bloodstream and is also involved in immune defence. Once this collection of substances enters the lymphatic vessels it is known as lymph. It is subsequently filtered by lymph nodes, from which it returns to the circulation via the […]

The Acromioclavicular Joint

The acromioclavicular joint is a plane type synovial joint. It is located where the lateral end of the clavicle articulates with the acromion of the scapula. The joint can be palpated during a shoulder examination; 2-3cm medially from the ‘tip’ of the shoulder (formed by the end of the acromion). In this article, we shall look at the […]

The Intrinsic Back Muscles

The muscles of the back can be divided into three groups – superficial, intermediate and intrinsic: Superficial – associated with movements of the shoulder. Intermediate – associated with movements of the thoracic cage. Deep – associated with movements of the vertebral column. The deep muscles develop embryologically in the back, and are thus described as […]

The Superficial Back Muscles

The muscles of the back can be divided into three groups – superficial, intermediate and deep: Superficial – associated with movements of the shoulder. Intermediate – associated with movements of the thoracic cage. Deep – associated with movements of the vertebral column. The deep muscles develop embryologically in the back, and are thus described as […]

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