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Development of the Face and Palate

The external human face develops between the 4th and 6th week of embryonic development. The development of the face is completed by the 6th week. Between the 6th and 8th week, the palate begins to develop. Consequently, this causes a distinction between the nasal and oral cavities. This development is completed by the 12th week. […]

Review Team

TeachMeAnatomy seeks to create the most comprehensive anatomy resource; covering all aspects of anatomy as well as many related topics in medicine and surgery. To do this, TeachMeAnatomy relies on the knowledge and expertise of our contributors and reviewers. This review team was created in January 2018 – and it is important to note that […]

The Pons

The pons is the largest part of the brainstem, located above the medulla and below the midbrain. It is a group of nerves that function as a connection between the cerebrum and cerebellum (pons is Latin for bridge). The pons develops from the embryonic metencephalon (part of the hindbrain, developed from the rhombencephalon), alongside the cerebellum. In this article, we will look at the anatomy of […]

The Pharyngeal Arches

The development of the head and neck begins in the 4th and 5th week. Growth of mesenchymal tissue (connective tissue) in the cranial region of the embryo results in the formation of arches, separated by clefts. These are the pharyngeal arches and pharyngeal clefts. Simultaneously, a number of outpocketings appear on the lateral wall of the pharynx – the […]

The Maxillary Division of the Trigeminal Nerve (CNV2)

The maxillary nerve is the second branch of the trigeminal nerve, which originates embryologically from the first pharyngeal arch. Its primary function is sensory supply to the mid-third of the face. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the maxillary nerve – its anatomical course, sensory and parasympathetic functions. Anatomical Course Trigeminal Nerve […]

The Ophthalmic Division of the Trigeminal Nerve (CNV1)

The ophthalmic nerve (CNV1) is a terminal branch of the trigeminal nerve (along with the maxillary and mandibular nerves). It provides sensory innervation to the skin, mucous membranes and sinuses of the upper face and scalp. In this article, we will look at the anatomy of the ophthalmic nerve – its anatomical course, sensory functions […]

The Mandibular Division of the Trigeminal Nerve (CNV3)

The mandibular nerve is a terminal branch of the trigeminal nerve (along with the maxillary and ophthalmic nerves). It has a sensory role in the head, and is associated with parasympathetic fibres of other cranial nerves. However unlike the other branches of the trigeminal nerve, the mandibular nerve also has a motor function. In this article, we shall look […]

The Scalene Muscles

The scalene muscles are three paired muscles (anterior, middle and posterior), located in the lateral aspect of the neck. Collectively, they form part of the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck. The scalenes act as accessory muscles of respiration, and perform flexion at the neck. In this article, we shall look at the […]

The Mandible

The mandible, located inferiorly in the facial skeleton, is the largest and strongest bone of the face. It forms the lower jaw and acts as a receptacle for the lower teeth. It also articulates on either side with the temporal bone, forming the temporomandibular joint. In this article, we will look at the anatomy and clinical importance […]

The Suboccipital Muscles

The suboccipital muscles are a group of four muscles situated underneath the occipital bone. All the muscles in this group are innervated by the suboccipital nerve. They are located within the suboccipital compartment of the neck; deep to the sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, splenius and semispinalis muscles. They collectively act to extend and rotate the head. In this […]

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