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The Deep Fibular Nerve

The deep fibular nerve (deep peroneal nerve) is a nerve of the leg. It is one of the terminal branches of the common fibular nerve. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the deep fibular nerve – its anatomical course, motor and sensory functions, and any clinical relevance. Overview Nerve roots: L4-S1. Motor function: […]

The Sciatic Nerve

The sciatic nerve is a major nerve of the lower limb. It is a thick flat band, approximately 2cm wide – the largest nerve in the body. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the sciatic nerve – its anatomical course, motor and sensory functions, and its clinical correlations. Overview Nerve roots: L4-S3. Motor […]

The Superficial Fibular Nerve

The superficial fibular nerve is a nerve of the lower limb. In older texts, it is known as the superficial peroneal nerve. In this article, we shall look at the anatomical course, motor and sensory functions of the nerve, and the clinical significance. Overview Nerve roots: L4-S1 Motor: Innervates the muscles in the lateral compartment […]

The Common Fibular Nerve

The common fibular nerve is a peripheral nerve of the lower limb. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the common fibular nerve – its anatomical course, functions and clinical correlations. Overview Nerve roots: L4 – S2 Motor: Innervates the short head of the biceps femoris directly. Also supplies (via branches) the muscles in […]

Tibial Nerve

The tibial nerve is a major peripheral nerve of the lower limb. It has several cutaneous and motor functions in the leg and foot. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the tibial nerve – its anatomical course, functions and clinical correlations. Overview Nerve roots: L4-S3 Sensory: Innervates the skin of the […]

The Femoral Nerve

The femoral nerve is one of the major peripheral nerves of the lower limb. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the femoral nerve – its anatomical course, functions, and clinical correlations. Overview Nerve roots: L2-L4 Motor functions: Innervates the anterior thigh muscles that flex the hip joint (pectineus, iliacus, sartorius) and extend […]

Venous Drainage of the Lower Limb

The veins of the lower limb drain deoxygenated blood and return it to the heart. They can be divided into two groups – deep and superficial: Deep veins are located underneath the deep fascia of the lower limb, accompanying the major arteries. Superficial veins are found in the subcutaneous tissue. They eventually drain into the […]

Walking and Gaits

Locomotion is the ability to move from one place to another. In humans, walking upright, or bipedally, is the most common method of locomotion. Walking involves all the joints of the lower limb and is characterised by an ‘inverted pendulum’ motion, in which the body vaults over the non-moving limb. In this article, we will describe […]

The Ankle Joint

The ankle joint (or talocrural joint) is a synovial joint located in the lower limb. It is formed by the bones of the leg (tibia and fibula) and the foot (talus). Functionally, it is a hinge type joint, permitting dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the foot. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the […]

Arteries of the Lower Limb

In the Thigh and Gluteal Region Femoral Artery The main artery of the lower limb is the femoral artery. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery (terminal branch of the abdominal aorta). The external iliac becomes the femoral artery when it crosses under the inguinal ligament and enters the femoral triangle. In the femoral […]

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