Search Results

Showing results 1 - 8 of 30

Page 1 of 4

The Arches of the Foot

The foot has three arches: two longitudinal (medial and lateral) arches and one anterior transverse arch (Fig. 1). They are formed by the tarsal and metatarsal bones, and supported by ligaments and tendons in the foot. Their shape allows them to act in the same way as a spring, bearing the weight of the body and absorbing the shock produced during […]

Muscles of the Foot

The muscles acting on the foot can be divided into two distinct groups; extrinsic and intrinsic muscles. The extrinsic muscles arise from the anterior, posterior and lateral compartments of the leg. They are mainly responsible for actions such as eversion, inversion, plantarflexion and dorsiflexion of the foot. The intrinsic muscles are located within the foot and are responsible for […]

Bones of the Foot: Tarsals, Metatarsals and Phalanges

The bones of the foot provide mechanical support for the soft tissues; helping the foot withstand the weight of the body whilst standing and in motion. They can be divided into three groups: Tarsals – a set of seven irregularly shaped bones. They are situated proximally in the foot in the ankle area. Metatarsals – connect the […]

The Tarsal Tunnel

The tarsal tunnel is a fibro-osseous space located on the posteromedial aspect of the ankle. It acts as a passageway for tendons, nerves and vessels to travel between the posterior leg and the foot. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the tarsal tunnel – its borders, contents, and clinical relevance. Borders […]

The Subtalar Joint

The subtalar joint is an articulation between two of the tarsal bones in the foot – the talus and calcaneus. The joint is classed structurally as a synovial joint, and functionally as a plane synovial joint. This article will look at the anatomy of the subtalar joint – its articulating surfaces, movements and neurovascular supply. Articulating […]

Lymphatic Drainage of the Lower Limb

The lymphatic system functions to drain tissue fluid, plasma proteins and other cellular debris back into the blood stream, and is also involved in immune defence. Once this collection of substances enters the lymphatic vessels it is known as lymph; lymph is subsequently filtered by lymph nodes and directed into the venous system. This article […]

The Patella

The patella (kneecap) is located at the front of the knee joint, within the patellofemoral groove of the femur. Its superior aspect is attached to the quadriceps tendon and inferior aspect to the patellar ligament. It is classified as a sesamoid type bone due to its position within the quadriceps tendon, and is the largest sesamoid bone in the body. In this […]

The Fascia Lata

Fascia is a sheet or band of fibrous tissue lying deep to the skin. It lines, invests, and separates structures within the body. There are three main types of fascia: Superficial fascia – blends with the reticular layer beneath the dermis. Deep fascia – envelopes muscles, bones, and neurovascular structures. Visceral fascia – provides membranous investments that suspend organs […]

The Sacral Plexus

The sacral plexus is a network of nerve fibres that supplies the skin and muscles of the pelvis and lower limb. It is located on the surface of the posterior pelvic wall, anterior to the piriformis muscle. The plexus is formed by the anterior rami (divisions) of the sacral spinal nerves S1, S2, S3 and S4. It […]

The Descending Tracts

This article is about the descending tracts of the central nervous system. The descending tracts are the pathways by which motor signals are sent from the brain to lower motor neurones. The lower motor neurones then directly innervate muscles to produce movement. The motor tracts can be functionally divided into two major groups: Pyramidal tracts – These […]

Page 1 of 4